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This article was originally published as:

de Waal, K. (2013). Principles and criteria for the use of the Old Testament in the book of Revelation. Journal of Asia Adventist Seminary, 16(1), 69-85.

ISSN: 1908-4862


220401 Christian Studies (incl. Biblical Studies and Church History)


The book of Revelation continues to inspire and challenge the contemporary reader with its poetic language and vexing symbolism. Its literary dynamics and visionary encounters trigger the imagination and deepen the desire to understand this enigmatic book better. Part of the complexity of Revelation is found in its indebtedness to antecedent literature, especially the Old Testament, which is woven into the very fabric of the book.

This article will address three matters. First, I will propose four principles that can aid the interpreter in studying this book; second, I will examine the criteria of Richard Hays and Jon Paulien that they enlist for interpreting the Old Testament in the writings of Paul and John respectively; and third, I will discuss the debate surrounding the literary construct of echo and its implications for interpreting Revelation.

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