This study examines the impact of using manipulatives in Mathematics on student understanding, efficiency, engagement and enjoyment in a lower primary classroom. Manipulatives are concrete physical objects that students can use in a hands-on approach to learning. During this research, 32 students were involved in various mathematical activities involving different kinds of manipulatives and also in activities where manipulatives were not used at all. The types of manipulatives used were clocks, coins, MAB blocks and the interactive whiteboard. Quantitative data was collected using a survey while qualitative data in the form of observations was also collected. The results showed that students are more engaged when using manipulatives, and that their perception of their learning environment improved in the areas of enjoyment, understanding and efficiency.
Cockett, A., & Kilgour, P. W. (2015). Mathematical manipulatives: Creating an environment for understanding, efficiency, engagement, and enjoyment. TEACH COLLECTION of Christian Education, 1(1), 47-54. Retrieved from https://research.avondale.edu.au/teachcollection/vol1/iss1/5